Some of these high altitude meadows situated at the summit of the highest Vosges ridges (above 1250 to 1300m) are naturally formed. They are known as primary “chaumes”. At this upland altitude they form an environment unique in Europe. The uniqueness of the flora lies in the presence of sub-alpine species (yellow gentian, arnica, alpine anemone, Vosges pansy, Pyrenean hawkbit, etc.) which, since post-glacial times, have found refuge on the Vosges mountain summits. In places, the grassland gives way to heathland made up of various shrub species: European blueberry, bog blueberry, cranberry, heather, creeping broom, etc.